Half way of life,
in a dark forest, I was
because my path had lost .
So begins the Divine Comedy. Dante , seizing an ancient literary image contained horn life a journey through this world , you realize that half of it is lost in a " jungle , rough and strong." Admitting a personal allegorical sense comes the poet to say that after living astray for some time in a sinful life, realizes the lowliness of his state and wants to take the path of good . a universal allegorical sense it means the man is lost without realize between the passions and vices and remains there until divine grace and reason will illuminate and help you get out of so sad condition Three human - beasts - passions that made him lose the right path will still lurk . include panther spotted coat that represents lust, the lion is the pride and the wolf , greed . lurking and will follow until you reach the Veltre , the Mastiff scare the wolf and that is Christ himself , unless question of the emperor who made the spiritual and temporal unification of Italy
While back scared into the jungle , currency poet a human figure, but can accurately distinguish whether it is alive or mere shadow man : it is Virgil, the immortal singer of the misfortunes of Troy and the random foundation of Rome , sent by Beatriz aid of his protege .
Virgil, who will bring Dante dark jungle and guide you to the earthly Paradise , figure of happiness in this life, is a symbol of imperial authority , the incumbent of the office to guide mankind temporary happiness and because it is a symbol of imperial authority , also represents human reason. After having said that the path taken is not good , he says the only way to salvation is the journey through Hell and Purgatory. It lends itself to lead you in this journey , if you want to go after Paradise will guide the adventurous soul of Beatrice. Not immediately accept the Florentine , but is decided when the future companion reveals who sent him, " Come, then That same desire unites us You are my guide, my lord, my master. . . "
The Gates of Hell , in which black characters highlighted in lintel known legend : " For me it goes to the suffering city Through me you to eternal punishment Through me you lost people between Justice moved my author . . . supreme . divine Power made me , the sum Wisdom and Love first. before me there was no created thing, but the eternal, and I will remain eternally . Abandon all hope ye who enter "is breached through the two travelers , and Friday , April 8, 1300 , the solemn jubilee year decreed by Pope Boniface VIII , penetrate the plain dark hallway that serves to Hell. There Wander, incessant , unable to ever stop , shadows of people without character , the unfortunates who were never alive , and indifferent cowards , forced to run after a flag, stung by wasps and hornets .
Beside the banks of Acheron sad souls are falling like dead leaves that emerge from the tree. The boatman Charon passes to the opposite side . This is where proper begins Hell, that tremendous funnel nine circles ever closer , the bottom is the center of the Earth. The first circle or Limbo Christ brought the Patriarchs ; mansion now is the righteous who died without knowing the true faith. There moran, without tears or sighs , unbaptized dead , and also the great sages , heroes and poets of antiquity who loved the beauty of being and were already Christians in hope. "Kiss the highest poet ," cries a voice recognizing the Mantuan usually inhabiting this place, and then run to meet Homer, the sovereign poet, satirist Horace, Ovid , Lucan ... In a noble and bright castle surrounded by seven walls are resident heroes who sang : Electra , Hector and Aeneas , Caesar, Brutus, Camillus, Penthesilea , Lavinia , Lucretia, Cornelia . . . Also have the great philosophers of ancient times , Aristotle "the master of those who know " , Socrates , Plato, Democritus , Diogenes, Anaxagoras , and Thales, Empedocles and Heraclitus , Seneca the moralist, the geometer Euclid , Ptolemy , Hippocrates , Galen Avicenna and Averroes , " wrote the great comment " .
No clarify how poets go first to the second circle, where Minos examines the sins of those who are coming . Wrapped and agitated by a whirlwind that never stops within the carnal sinners Semiramis, Dido , Cleopatra, Helen, Paris, Tristan . . . and thou shadows "to which Love made out of this life " as that unfortunate Francesca , embracing passionately her Paolo says he could not avoid the impulse that led to death and eternal punishment .
If the second circle are lustful whirlwind swept by incessant , the third gluttons are beaten to the ground by a tenacious , demoralizing rain and skinned by Cerberus, three-headed monster . Love for his city Alighieri stops to compatriot Ciacco , that speaks indignant and sore factions tearing him to Florence and predicts its next exile.
Prodigals and misers , meeting the fourth circle , forced to drag heavy weights and each other every time they meet scoff . To download the fifth Virgil makes Dante follow the course of a stream that flows into the River Styx . Immersed in that immense quagmire gets pounded and brutally tear irate while mud from the bottom of the lazy sigh .
Flegias leads , against his will , burned antemuros of Dis , the city of Dis, as the ancients called Pluto . The demons , angry and arrogant , trying to keep out Virgilio although they are ready to pass to Dante, but it comes at the right time through a celestial messenger dryshod Styx and opens the door , touching his wand while fleeing stampede everywhere evil spirits .
So , not without difficulty and danger, poets breached through the gate of Dis . Are already in the sixth circle and now it's coasting a fiery graves strewn moor , within which lie the heretics. Among them are those who believe life the soul with the body they trusted solely on their will and made it the measure of all things. Dante calls Epicureans , pokes us to a corner of the Middle Ages often overlooked by historians of that time, too determined to outline the experiences of the Middle Ages. Among the Epicureans is Farinata degli Uberti magnanimous , party man who passionately loved the country and defended valiantly , but left behind him a rut of hatred and vengeance impossible to fill , among unbelievers the celebrated German Emperor Federico II and Cardinal Ottaviano degli Ubaldini ; among the heretics , Pope Anastasius of the medieval cleric suspected that had strayed into heresy .
In the seventh circle , divided into three steps , the Minotaur of Crete that fed on human flesh, reigns supreme over the rebels to God , creator of the natural order and supreme legislator . Violent against others and their things , tyrants and murderers, are immersed in the boiling blood Flegetone , along whose banks run , lightning- beasts , centaurs , asaeteando anyone emerging from the blood more than its body allows . There are no Alexander of Thessaly - Alexander the Great, to the Middle Ages bow , Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, Pyrrhus, EZZELINO and could not miss, Attila the Scourge of God .
Further naked wild forest foliage dry and abode of the Harpies breaking branches , desolation and germination moaning souls of suicides that tearing of the body, as plants are imprisoned in their own nature extends . In this stage , pursued by hungry dogs , fleeing through the woods the wasteful , they trusted him all the luck and chance. Along with its assets dissipated the moral substance of his person , becoming easy prey to conflicting demands of instinct. The third step a heavy atmosphere hangs motionless and fall from above large clouds of fire. Lying on the floor lying blasphemers of God, while running relentlessly that his actions went against nature, and remain seated, trying to fend off the flames themselves , like dogs scare the wasps , which were in the world usurers .
We are surprised to find in this area Brunetto Latini last , which Dante called my master , as to point the way of letters taught him " how man is immortalized ." If Alighieri places him among the Sodomites , opponents of natural law , Debese to Latini , who lived many years in France , wrote and published in the French Treasury , which says that "the French language is the most delightful and most common of all nations . " Dante, far from sharing this assertion , he implicitly accused of having acted against nature , not writing in their mother tongue , Tuscany.
A rump of Geryon , a winged monster with human head and arms and body and tail of a serpent , Dante reaches the eighth circle of Malebolge -male bolgie , bad - bags or tanks , ten circular tanks, concentric , where they undergo condemns fraudulent , spread in many other categories: pimps and seducers , terribly deceived by the devil, flatterers , deep in manure ; simoniacs , of that ilk Simon Magus of Samaria , who wanted to buy the apostles Peter and John the power of communicate the Holy Ghost by the simple imposition of hands to put in a stone pit , which are left to shake legs with feet burning head, magicians and soothsayers , walking backwards with his face in the kidneys , the guilty of misapplication , immersed in boiling pitch and guarded by demons , those demons gruesome , with quaint names which had so often referred to in Dante 's eardrums sculptured cathedrals - ; hypocrites , covered with layers of lead , gold above that overwhelmed with their weight ; thieves, who , terrified , trying to escape from an unclean swarming mass of reptiles in the grave , but in vain , because snakes bite them and surround them eventually to become the human figures that have crossed ; perfidious counselors wrapped in devouring flames , the sowers of scandal and schism - Muhammad Ali - mangled and mutilated, whose slit belly guts gush ; counterfeiters of all kinds, you are presented with faces of mangy , rabid , dropsy , thirsty and feverish . Ten graves in which the most horrible visions accumulate, the more desatentadas fantasies that fairly often called " horrific " and most unheard refined tortures .
By simony is doomed in the third pit the French Pope Clement V , who moved the papal seat to Avignon and was overly condescending with Philip the Fair , ceding not only ecclesiastical tithes , but also the property of the Templars wickedly persecuted , for Navarre scammer Ciampolo a thief in the fifth , the seventh with five other Florentine Vanni Fucci , who loses color see Dante and despite her darkly predicts the calamities that will befall his party. A flame , ending in a tongue of fire , the poet calls attention to pass the eighth pit , where the fraudulent directors: there groan Greek heroes Odysseus and Diomedes. Dante first hears of the story of his last journey and death , a story according to which Odysseus return to Ithaca after they have embarked on a new adventure full of adventures to ignore the ancient tradition .
When Ulysses silent and motionless flame is covering her , makes her eyes again demanded another news Romana: is the voice of Guido da Montefeltro , man arms and politically "the shrewd and subtle man who had in Italy at that time , "who relates the tricks of Pope Boniface VIII and conscious victim of the same is declared.
In the last Malebolge - pit enclosure tenth -ayes rending their ears drilled , and well accustomed to the cries of the damned , they are counterfeiters , whose spirits languish crammed into this dark valley and covered with gangrenous pustules members. Two alchemists supported against each other, are started with claws mange scabs that cover , just as you are jumping carp scales with a knife. A few steps a forger , skilled, like many others, lighten the weight of the florin, the currency with flower of Florence, who prevailed in all European markets look like a lute if he had cut the body in the place where the man forks. Neither of our boldest fantasies or surrealist painters who stamped on his canvases Brueghel the Elder and Hieronymus Bosch can be compared with the macabre that described the immortal pen of Dante.
And it has not yet completed its tour of Hell. We are on the edge height XXXI when up to ninth and final circle, for we hear the sound of a horn , which recalls the ivory horn of Roland for help Charlemagne in the defiles of Roncesvalles, and discern in the distance a soaring towers . Virgil shows his mistake : they are not towers but giants, brutal and inert masses , of which only the head , shoulders, torso and belly will appreciate , the rest remains buried in earth. There is Nimrod , the builder of the tower of Babel that prevented the world speak the same language.
The Florentine seeks in vain to Briareus, chained further, but distinguishes Antaeus , who beat Hercules, lifting her in his arms. By Virgilio upward by the two travelers and leads to the bottom of that well , where in four distinct areas, oppressed by the ice of Cocytus , are punished traitors to their relatives ( the Caína ) , his country ( the Antenora ) guests ( the Tolomca ) and their benefactors ( Judaica ) . Imprisoned by silence, their existence is like that of the stones and their torment can hardly be described in a language that says " Mom and Dad " . Ice thicker than the Danube in the Austrian winter, to gird the waist and his teeth chattering as storks beat their peaks. Also poet trembles in that eternal algidity . His foot , passing , touch a face and sobbing owner exclaims : "Why are you talking about the silent pain is Bocca degli Abbati , who betrayed Montaperti the Guelph cause and ashamed to reveal his name to Dante.
Is the pain of Count Ugolino , the traitor to his country , which he rages brutally in the body of him who in turn will betray him, and that lends voice to instinct wound paternity and gives color to the ferocity of the Archbishop Ruggiero narrating his own death and that of his children in the Tower of hunger. The two are frozen in a hole , the head of one mans hat to another as who eats bread hungry and teeth dug in your neighbor's neck where the brain rests in the neck. Ruggiero , archbishop of Pisa- reproach of Italy, Dante called to that city , was locked in the Tower the Earl of hunger , after having betrayed . And having described the poet's mouth the protagonist himself , who has never heard of the horrific scene of Ugolino in the famous Tower , so most terrible hints that so expressed? The Florentine retires cursing the city theater of so great a crime , leaving Ugolino continue its grisly repast in the wretched skull Ruggiero.
' In the center of the universe, the farthest point of God , in the ice surrounding the shadows, is Lucifer, Emperor of the kingdom of pain , taking half out of the ice surface. Sprout on his back two huge bat wings, like sails in the sea tossed by the wind. Trinidad blind material abyss monster three faces weeping for six eyes , three mouths while chewing three sinners : Judas , betrayer of Christ, and Brutus and Cassius traitors to Caesar. At the time Dite or Lucifer spreads its huge wings , to his mane agárranse the two poets , through the center of the Earth , and for a steep path , up the opposite hemisphere to return to the bright world again and spot the stars, already beginning to shine in the sky in the early evening hours of that Holy Saturday , April 9 , AD 1300.
Dante 's Hell is a funnel formed by nine concentric , ever closer and deepening circles. It is located under the crust of the earth in the northern hemisphere part inhabited by man. That inverted cone sinks to the center of the earth , which is also the center of the universe and the place farthest from God . There, swooping from the sky, fell and is confined Lucifer. The land that was removed before his fall and was protruding above the waters of the southern hemisphere , formed the island of Purgatory : a high mountain and steep under the Southern Cross, formed by nine superimposed terraces, whose summit are green fresh and living forests earthly Paradise . Of the nine terraces, the first two , the beach bordering the mountain and the steep slopes of the mountain are the lobby of repentant souls : the Antepurgatorio , where they are awaiting the "shadows " of the negligent , the other seven are the Purgatory itself, and each one is purged deadly sins